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Monday, July 30, 2012

Facts- Ice Age

The Ice Age (Pleistocene Epoch) 

  How the landscape during the last Ice Age may have looked, with mammals like the woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros

Just The Facts
  • There were about 11 different ice ages.
  • The ice ages were during the earth's 4.6 billion years of history.
  • The last ice age was called "The Great Ice Age" and was 11,000 years ago.
  • During the "Great Ice Age" over a third of the earth was covered in ice. During the ice age the air had less carbon dioxide in it.
  • Right now we are living in a mini ice age.
  • There are two explanations of why the ice ages might have occurred: 1.The temperatures were much colder so it never rained, only snowed. 2. The earth changed its tilt away from the sun.


Several times in the history of the earth huge sheets of ice, or glaciers, covered large portions of its continents. The most recent episode of glaciation, the Pleistocene epoch, is commonly referred to as the Ice Age and began approximately 1.6 million years ago. During that time there were a number of advances and retreats of the glaciers, which are termed glacial and interglacial stages, respectively. The glaciers of Greenland and Antarctica are remnants of the last glacial advance, and we presently live in an interglacial stage termed the Holocene epoch. With the end of the Pleistocene (and the beginning of the Holocene) about 11,000 years ago, the Ice Age ended in name only. It is very likely that the earth will experience another glacial advance, perhaps in the next 10,000 to 20,000 years, and that the glacial/interglacial cycles will continue. Geologic history shows, however, that ice ages eventually come to a complete end and do not occur again for several hundred million years.

There is debate in the scientific community about what caused the glaciers to advance and retreat, but current theory attributes it to astronomical causes. Because of variations in the earth's orbit, average summer and winter temperatures change with time. There are periods when winters are colder and summers hotter, followed by periods when winters are warmer and summers cooler. The latter are thought to produce glacial advances, because the cooler summers are not adequate to melt all of the previous winter's snow. The result is that snow and ice begin to accumulate from one winter to the next. During periods when summers were warmer, and winters cooler, the glaciers are thought to have retreated. During the Pleistocene epoch, two or more centers of glaciation in Canada probably joined to form one large sheet of ice.
As the glaciers moved south they scraped and bulldozed rock and soil in front of them, and ground and crushed the material beneath them. Soil and rock that was pushed in front of the glaciers, or dropped as they melted, commonly formed long ridges called moraines. Moraines are a common feature in the midwestern and northern U.S. Many of the boulders scattered throughout the region are granites carried down from Canada. In fact, diamonds that were transported south from an as yet undiscovered source in Canada, have been found in the Great Lakes region of the U.S. Exposed bedrock in many places has long scratches, or striations, that were formed as the glaciers, carrying an assortment of rocks from other areas, ground over the bedrock. This grinding also produced large quantities of gravel, sand, and silt. An unsorted mixture of these materials brought by the glaciers is called till, which forms much of the soil of the northern states.
The southern limit all of the glacial advances, not including the Rocky Mountains, is approximately the present day location of the Ohio and Missouri Rivers, although the last (Wisconsin) advance did not reach as far south as some of the previous advances. The glacial advances and retreats also had a dramatic effect upon the geology and ecology of areas south of the glaciers. It took so much water to form the glaciers that the world sea level fell approximately 140 meters (425 feet). This exposed the flat continental shelves, now covered with water, as dry land. This lowering of sea level has the same effect as raising the land, which caused rivers to begin eroding deep valleys. The Lower Mississippi, Tombigbee-Alabama, and Red River systems formed deep cuts in the existing land surface. As the glaciers melted and sea levels rose again, the valleys were filled with sediment carried by meltwater-swollen rivers. Most of the melt water south of the glaciers flowed into the Upper Mississippi, Ohio, and Missouri River basins. This sediment laden water fed into the Lower Mississippi River forming a huge flood plain that is over 500 miles long, and in some places almost 200 miles wide, which is often referred to as the Mississippi Delta. Not all of the melt water ran directly into the rivers. The retreating glacier sometimes left large depressions, which filled with melt water to form lakes. The Great Lakes were formed in this manner, but they are not nearly as large as some that have since drained and disappeared. Lakes Winnipeg, Reindeer, Athabasca, Great Slave, and Great Bear in Canada are also remnants of this glacial lake system.
The leading edge of the glaciers was an ice cliff, sometimes hundreds of feet high, and cold dry winds swept down from the glaciers. As the glaciers slowly spread south, they pushed the climatic zones farther south. Just south of the glaciers was a zone of tundra, next was a zone of shrub tundra, then scrub birch forests, then boreal forests, and finally mixed deciduous forests. Approximately 18,000 years ago, when the Wisconsin stage glaciers were at their maximum southern extent, the Gulf Coast climate was colder and drier. The mean annual rainfall in southern Louisiana was possibly as much as 40 inches less than it is today. Boreal forest , similar to those now found in Canada and the northern U.S., extended as far south as northern Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. The north central Gulf Coast was probably covered by sparse forests of northern pine, similar to portions of southern Wisconsin or New England. Oak and hickory forests, similar to those now found in Kentucky or Missouri, probably covered the river bottoms. Florida was drier and its mean annual temperature may have been as much as 10 F colder. It was covered with sparse, scrubby vegetation, sand dunes, and steppe-like open grasslands. There were some scattered pines and broadleaf trees. Central Texas was probably covered by tall grass prairie, with pine and aspen growing in the river bottoms. The high plains of west Texas were most likely covered by short grass prairie and semidesert. These prairies were probably similar to those of the present day Canadian Provinces of Saskatchewan and eastern Alberta.
The harshest climatic conditions occurred in a zone adjacent to the ice edge. Cold temperatures and strong winds, due to the proximity of the ice, created an Arctic desert, devoid of virtually all plants and littered with rock debris and fine-grained sediment deposited by the glacial meltwaters. The fine silt- and clay-sized sediment was picked up by the strong winds blowing from the glaciers and deposited in sometimes thick, extensive layers called loess. Loess deposits cover much of the Midwest and extended south into Louisiana and Mississippi. Loess deposits form many of the present day bluffs along the lower Mississippi River (Natchez and Vicksburg, Mississippi), and are the basis for much of the rich farm land in the Midwest.
Animals moved north and south with the vegetation zones. There are a number of animals that existed during the Pleistocene epoch that are now extinct, such as: mammoths, mastodons, camels, horses, ground sloths, giant bears and wolves, lions, and saber-toothed cats. Several theories have been proposed to explain why these animals became extinct.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

Goodbye " Aanand ".....sadest demice of Rajesh Khanna -Kakaji

Good Bye "Aanand" .....
Sadest , highly undigestible , deeply paining truth about Kakaji...India 's 1st ever Superstar!
Inborn stardom of Jitesh ; an adopted child came up via one of the talent hunt boosting him literally high-high-sooo high up in one of the glorious & charming  position in Bollywood with the most melodious stepping stone called "Aaradhna" !

                       Flashback: Remembering the …

         He made not only crowd  but even our big B for "Aanand" ; He anastomized every family & every  member of a layman family together via "Bawarchi"...  Saccha Zutha, Kati Patang , Amar Prem , Hati mere sathi  he was nothing but integration & summation of Success.

         He made his style the most peculiar& famous & loveable - fabulous synchronization between head & hands. Made many many dialogues so special simply cause of his style , his smile , his voice, expressions..............thats all...!! " Pushpa...I hate tears .......... " I guess even sharmila aunty will remember brightly!

        We have seen his successful partnership as a hero with Mumtaz, Sharmila Tagore, Hema Malini, Smita Patil and Tina Munim. On the music front, who can forget his unforgettable on-screen renditions of compositions by R.D. Burman and Laxmikant Pyarelal. And as an actor, he gave memorable hits with Shakti Samanta and Hrishikesh Mukherjee.

         He was a king of Bollywood ; the 1st superhero almost beating every one till an entire decade. He lived life in a king-size way ! He remained into picture may be with Anju Mahendru OR with Tina Munim But finally his wife Dimple kapadia accompanied him till his last moment.

         " I simply have realized the truth again ! May be his depth of greatness made an impact !What YOU are , YOUR name , YOUR looks , YOUR property , YOUR friends ......... What ever it is ; is associated with YOUR body which is given to you for a time-being till you complete one of your inning on this earth asa humans by our dear god. One who is born ; is born to die. We need to take care of our body as it is the only surviving tool for us on this earth as humans. As this body gets older ; like a cloth soul changes so called body.  Its better to be good & kind with everyone till YOU are here ! Make others happy ; use this Golden opportunity of Human Life."
         He was the dearest papa of twinkle & rinkly ; an adorable husband of dimple ; nanaji of Aarav , Father-in-low of Akshay kumar & Our "kakaji "...........
                                               Unke fans ; hamesha unkehi rahenge... !!

Another 2012 hit to Bollywood , to entire Indians is loss of this legend.....An unhealing loss !
Hard to believe but has began his journey of - Life after death .... May his soul rest in peace........!

- For Rajesh Khanna

Friday, July 13, 2012

World's Top 10 unsolved mysteries....

Unexplained Mysteries of The World
#1 Crop Circles

The original crop circles were exactly that - basic circular patterns of flattened crops - often created in mysterious circumstances overnight. During the last 20 years, crop circles have evolved into complex geometric shapes, like the DNA double helix or the nautilus shell. Whatever creates them has become rapidly more advanced in just a period of a few decades.
The first crop circle was recorded in 1966, when an Australian sugar cane farmer claimed to see a saucer-shaped spaceship rise up from a swamp before flying away. When he looked at the landing site, he said he found the reeds intricately woven in a clockwise direction on top of the water. Over the years there have been many other anecdotal accounts of crop circles appearing in alien UFO literature, where sometimes the crops were burnt, otherwise flattened.
Unexplained MysteriesAs unexplained mysteries go, this one has been debunked by numerous experts, who have provided ample evidence that crop circles are a giant man-made hoax...
In 1991, two men from Southampton, England, admitted they had been creating hoax crop circles for 15 years. They could make intricate patterns using planks, rope, hats and wire - and could create a 40-foot circle in 15 minutes. The only reason they came clean was because one of the men was running up considerable mileage on his car and had to convince his wife he wasn't having an affair. He still publicly demonstrates the art today.
Further studies have dismissed claims that alien saucers have been leaving excessive nitrate deposits at crop circle locations. The trace deposits are explained by the nitrate-based fertilizers used by farmers to grow their crops.
Other paranormal fans claim that there is a mysterious energy left behind within crop circles and people go there to mentally make contact with an extra-terrestrial energy. What could possibly create such a widespread psychological effect?
Science refers to this as The Placebo Effect - where the mind can produce powerful effects on the body simply because the person expects it to. Indeed, the mind is so powerful (and science fully accepts this) that it can sometimes heal the body just as well as medicine when that medicine is replaced by a sugar pill.

Thursday, July 12, 2012

"आज " ची कविता

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सौजन्य - अमृत , मराठी मासिक , ( मे २०१२ ), नाशिक

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Bermuda Triangle Mystery..Solved ?? !!!

Computer studies of ocean floors around the world, particularly the area known as The Bermuda Triangle, reveal evidence of massive methane explosions in the past. For years, believers in the paranormal, aliens, and other outlandish theories pointed to the the disappearance of ships and aircraft as an indicator of mysterious forces at work in the “Devil’s triangle.” Scientists have finally pointed the rest of us to a more plausible cause.
The presence of methane hydrates indicates enormous eruptions of methane bubbles that would swamp a ship, and projected high into the air- take out flying airplanes, as well.
"Any ships caught within the methane mega-bubble immediately lose all buoyancy and sink to the bottom of the ocean. If the bubbles are big enough and possess a high enough density they can also knock aircraft out of the sky with little or no warning. Aircraft falling victim to these methane bubbles will lose their engines-perhaps igniting the methane surrounding them-and immediately lose their lift as well, ending their flights by diving into the ocean and swiftly plummeting." 

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